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DVD, SVCD, VCD explained

.

DVD stands for Digital Versatile/Video Disc, DVDR stands for DVD Recordable and DVDRW for DVD ReWriteable. If you're familiar with regular audio/music CDs or regular DVD-Video discs, then you will know what a recordable DVDR/W looks like. A recordable DVDR/W stores up to 2 hours of very good quality DVD-Video, including several audio tracks in formats like stereo, Dolby Digital or DTS and also advanced menu systems, subtitles and still pictures that can be played by many standalone DVD Players and most computer DVD-ROMs. If you choose to lower the video quality it is possible to store several hours video on a recordable DVDR/W using low bitrates and low resolution with video quality more like VHS, SVHS, SVCD, VCD or VCD. It is also possible to have up to 4.38* GB ordinary data or mix DVD-Video and data on a recordable DVD that can be played by most computer DVD-ROMs.

There are three competing DVD Recording standards, DVD-R/W and DVD+R/W have pretty similar features and are compatible with many standalone DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs while DVD-RAM has less DVD Player and DVD-ROM compatibility but better recording features.

DVD-R and DVD-RW
DVD-R/W was the first DVD recording format released that was compatible with standalone DVD Players.
DVD-R is a non-rewriteable format and it is compatible with about
93% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD-RW is a rewriteable format and it is compatible with about
78% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD-R/W supports single side 4.37 computer GB
* DVDs(called DVD-5) and double sided 8.75 computer GB* DVDs(called DVD-10).
These formats are supported by
DVDForum.

DVD+R and DVD+RW
DVD+R/W has some "better" features than DVD-R/W such as lossless linking and both CAV and CLV writing.
DVD+R is a non-rewritable format and it is compatible with about
87% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD+RW is a rewritable format and is compatible with about
78% of all DVD Players and most DVD-ROMs.
DVD+R/W supports single side 4.37 computer GB
* DVDs(called DVD-5) and double side 8.75 computer GB* DVDs(called DVD-10).
These formats are supported by the
DVD+RW Alliance.

DVD+R DL
DVD+R DL or called DVD+R9 is a Dual Layer writeable DVD+R. The dual layered discs can hold 7.95 computer GB
* (called DVD-9) and dual layered double sides 15.9* computer GB (called dvd-18).

DVD-RAM

DVD-RAM has the best recording features but it is not compatible with most DVD-ROM drives and DVD-Video players. Think more of it as a removable hard disk. DVD-RAM is usually used in some
DVD Recorders.



DVD Sizes, What is DVD-5, DVD-10, DVD-9DVD-18?
How much does a DVDR/W fit? Is it 4.7GB or 4.38GB? 8.54 GB or 7.95 GB?
The DVD sizes can be a bit confusing. There are basicly 4 different dvd sizes,
DVD-5, holds around 4 700 000 000 bytes and that is 4.37 computer GB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes. DVD+R/W and DVD-R/W supports this format. Also called Single Sided Single Layered.
DVD-10, holds around 9 400 000 000 bytes and that is 8.75 computer GB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes. DVD+R/W and DVD-R/W supports this format. Also called Double Sided Single Layered.
DVD-9, holds around 8 540 000 000 bytes and that is 7.95 computer GB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes. DVD+R supports this format. Also called Single Sided Dual Layered.
DVD-18, holds around 17 080 000 000 bytes and that is 15.9 computer GB where 1 kbyte is 1024 bytes. DVD+R supports this format. Also called Double Sided Dual Layered.

 Other non-standard special DVD formats:

DVD-VCD

is basicly a VCD authored on a DVDR/W. DVD supports the VCD resolution but the audio has to be resampled to 48 khz. If the audio is resampled to 48 khz it is standard DVD-Video.

DVD-SVCD
is basicly a SVCD authored on a DVDR/W. DVD do not supports the SVCD resolution but it may anyway work and the audio has to be resampled to 48 khz like the DVD-VCD.

DVD-MP3
is MP3s burned on a DVDR/W but very few MP3 capable standalone DVD Players supports it because most Players verify DVDR/W as DVD-Video only.

DVD-ISO
is MPEG,MPG,VOB files burned on a DVDR/W without any DVD Authoring(making the vob,ifo files) but very few standalone DVD Players supports it because most Players verify DVDR/W as DVD-Video only. 

Technical Info for DVD-Video

 

PAL

Video:

Up to 9.8 Mbit/sec MPEG2 or up to 1.856 MBit/sec MPEG1 video
720 x 576 pixels MPEG2 (Called Full-D1)
704 x 576 pixels MPEG2
352 x 576 pixels MPEG2 (Called Half-D1, same as the CVD Standard)
352 x 288 pixels MPEG2
352 x 288 pixels MPEG1 (Same as the VCD Standard)
25 fps (frames/second)
16:9 Anamorphic (only supported by 720x576)

Audio:
48000 Hz
32 - 1536 kbit/sec
Up to 8 audio tracks containing Dolby Digital, DTS, PCM(uncompressed audio), MPEG-1 Layer2. One audio track must have MPEG-1, DD or PCM Audio.

Extras:
Menus, still pictures, subtitles and more.



NTSC (NTSC Film)

Video:
Up to 9.8 Mbit/sec MPEG2 or up to 1.856 MBit/sec MPEG1 video
720 x 480 pixels MPEG2 (Called Full-D1)
704 x 480 pixels MPEG2
352 x 480 pixels MPEG2 (Called Half-D1, same as the CVD Standard)
352 x 240 pixels MPEG2
352 x 240 pixels MPEG1 (Same as the VCD Standard)
29,97 fps (frames/second)
23,976 fps with
3:2 pulldown = 29,97 playback fps (NTSC Film, this is only supported by MPEG2 video)
16:9 Anamorphic (only supported by 720x480)


Audio:
48000 Hz
32 - 1536 kbit/sec
Up to 8 audio tracks containing DD (Dolby Digital/AC3), DTS, PCM(uncompressed audio), MPEG-1 Layer2. One audio track must have DD or PCM Audio.

Extras:
Menus, still pictures, subtitles and more.



 

DVD File/Folder Structure


Explanation:

. BUP = Backup files of the IFO files.

. IFO = The IFO files includes information such as chapters, subtitle tracks and audio tracks.

. VOB = The VOB files contains the actual video,audio,subtitles and menus.

Folder

Files

Explanation

AUDIO_TS

(undefined)

DVD Audio

VIDEO_TS

VIDEO_TS.BUP

 

 

VIDEO_TS.IFO

The first video play item, IFO, usally a copyright notice or a menu

 

VIDEO_TS.VOB

The first video play item, VOB

 

VTS_01_0.BUP

 

 

VTS_01_0.IFO

Title 01, IFO, usually the main movie

 

VTS_01_0.VOB

Title 01, VOB 0, the menu for this title

 

VTS_01_1.VOB

Title 01, VOB 1, the video for this title

 

VTS_01_2.VOB

Title 01, VOB 2, if larger than 1 GB it will be splitted into several vobs

 

VTS_01_3.VOB

Title 01, VOB 3

 

VTS_01_4.VOB

Title 01, VOB 4, up to 10(0-9) VOB files if necassary

 

VTS_02_0.BUP

 

 

VTS_02_0.IFO

Title 02, IFO, usually movie extras

 

VTS_02_0.VOB

Title 02, VOB 0, the menu for this title

 

VTS_02_1.VOB

Title 02, VOB 1, the video for this title

 

VTS_xx_x.BUP

 

 

VTS_xx_x.IFO

And so on

 

VTS_xx_x.VOB

 

 

VTS_xx_x.VOB

 

 

VTS_99_9.VOB

Up to 99(1-99) titles with max 10(0-9) VOB files each




Video File Comparison



Format

VCD

SVCD

DVD

DivX
XviD
WMV

MOV

ASF
SMR
nAVI

RM

DV

Resolution
NTSC
PAL

352x240
352x288

480x480
480x576

720x480
720x576≤

640x480≤

640x480≤

320x240≤

320x240≤

720x480
720x576

Video
Compression

MPEG1

MPEG2

MPEG2, MPEG1

MPEG4

Sorenson, Cinepak, MPEG4

MPEG4

RM

DV

Video bitrate kbit/sec

1150 kbit/s

1000~2500 kbit/s

3000~9000 kbit/s

300~1000 kbit/s

300~2000 kbit/s

100~500 kbit/s

100~500 kbit/s

25 Mbit/s

Audio
Compression

MP1

MP1

MP1, MP2, AC3, DTS, PCM

MP3, WMA, OGG, AAC, AC3

Sorenson, Cinepak, MP3

MP3, WMA

RM

DV

Audio bitrate kbit/sec

224 kbit/s

128~384 kbit/s

192~448 kbit/s

64~448 kbit/s

64~192 kbit/s

64~128 kbit/s

64~128 kbit/s

1000~1500 kbit/s

Size/min

10 MB/min

10 - 20 MB/min

30 - 70 MB/min

1 - 10 MB/min

1 - 20 MB/min

1 - 5 MB/min

1 - 5 MB/min

216 MB/min

Min/74min CD

74min

35-60min

15-20min

60-180min

60-180min

120-300min

120-300min

3min

Hours/DVDR

N/A

N/A

2-4hrs
(3-7hrs™)

13-26hrs

13-26hrs

26-40hrs

26-40hrs

20min

DVD Player Compatibility

Great

Good

Excellent

Few

None

None

None

None

Computer CPU Usage

Low

High

Very High

Very High

High

Low

Low

High

Quality

Good

Great*

Excellent*

Great*

Great*

Decent*

Decent*

Excellent

≤ approximately resolution, it can be higher or lower
~ approximately bitrate, it can be higher or lower
™ DVD with lower video quality, similiar to VCD/SVCD video quality
* the video quality depends on the bitrate and the video resolution, higher bitrate and higher resolution generally means better vid

 

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